Moving with Time : A Story of the APLFD
by Alex Wang
The Asian Pacific League for Freedom and Democracy (APLFD) , which might be the most long live non-profit political regional organization in Asia in modern time, was founded on June 15, 1954, in Chinhae, a southern Korean naval base 30 miles west of Pusan. The League was first named as the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League (APACL) when it was inaugurated at the Chinhae Conference, attended by some 30 delegates of eight countries and districts from South Korea, the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan), the Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Macau and Ryuku(Okinawa).
The purpose of the forming of the APACL was to check the expansion of the Communism in a disordered world that surfaced after the Second World War. It was hoped that an united effort of the Asians could help to maintain peace and prosperity of those free countries in the region. And as President Syngman Rhee of Korea noted in his opening speech at the Chinhae Conference that : “ it is time for the Asians to take a common action for their common security before it is too late”. For the founding members of the League, they believed that the organization of the APACL could further secure their national security under a collective will.
To cope with time, this organization has changed its name for two times, first to the Asian Pacific Anti-Communist League in 1984, and then to its present name the Asian Pacific League for Freedom and Democracy (APLFD) adopted in 1990. But the League’s founding goal for a peaceful and prosperous Asia has never been changed. Nevertheless, few people has expected that this people’s organization could survive the time, across over the Twentieth Century, and into the Twenty-First Century.
On the occasion of the 60th anniversary of the APLFD (1954--2014), this writing is a personal observation on the development of the APLFD, with a hope to promote people’s understanding of the APLFD, while leaving some notes for those, of this and next generation, who are interested in Asian affairs.
The story of the APLFD began in the year of 1949.
A new world appeared on the horizon in late 1940s following the conclusion of the Second World War (1939-1945). In this new age, the Communist became a rising power while many of those one-time colony of European power turned into certain helpless and insecure state. It was under such circumstance that some Asian leaders brewed the idea of forming an anti-communist alliance to defend those free nations of Asia.
As the Chinese civil war between the Kuomintang (KMT,the Nationalist Party) and the Communist Party was drawing to its end in the favour of the Communist, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the national leader of China and the KMT, paid a visit to Manila in July 1949, and met with President Elpidio Quirino of the Philippines. After their meeting in Baguio, a resort town near by Manila, the two Asian leaders issued a Baguio Statement, urging free Asian countries to organize an Asian Union to contain the Communist which was their common threat.
A month later, in August 1949, Generalissimo Chiang visited Chinhae and met with President Syngman Rhee of Korea. The two leaders endorsed the Baguio Statement, and requested President Quirino of the Philippines to convene a preliminary conference in Baguio soon for the organization of the so said Asian Union. But their request was never fulfilled. And the plan of an anti-communist alliance was put aside for a while, until the end of the Korean War (1950-1953).
In the meantime, before 1949 was concluded, Generalissimo Chiang and his followers went across the sea and retired to Taiwan, an island of 36,179 square kilometer facing southern China. On Taiwan, Generalissimo Chiang was elected as the President of the Republic of China (ROC) in February 1955. Under President Chiang’s leadership, a new government, known as Free China, was established in Taipei, continuing their fighting against the Communist, and awaiting the time of a return to recover their homeland which was called the Communist China after 1949.
With the end of the Korean War, President Syngman Rhee paid a visit to Taipei in November 1953. His meeting with Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek concluded with an agreement to form a non-governmental anti-communist front of free Asians. Thus, the original idea of an Asian alliance of 1949 has been modified to a people’s organization, allowing the two Asian leaders to proceed with their anti-communist program with a free hand, with or without the consent of the Americans.
In early 1954, right after his Taipei trip, President Syngman Rhee sent out Korean delegations for three times to Southeast Asia to seek supports for the first conference of an anti-communist alliance. Despite of hardship and bumping on the road, the Koreans travelled to Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, French Vietnam and Hong Kong, at a time of difficulties when air travel was not that comfortable, easy and safe as today. At last, the Koreans made the birth of an anti-communist Union a possible.
The First Conference of the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League (APACL) was convened on June 15 to 17, 1954 in Chinhae in southern Korea. Following a 3-day closed door meeting in Chinhae, delegates of the conference travelled to Seoul for another three days visit from June 18 to 21, as guests of mass rally and parade, and conducted a field trip to the front line, Panmunjom.
So this is how the APLFD was born, as the world entering into its Cold War era with two confronted groups, one followed the banner of the Capitalistic America, the other went to the camp of the Communist Russia.
Three months after the APLFD was founded, a US dominated military group to contain the Communist was formed in Manila in September 1954. This military group was called the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), a copy of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Europe. The SEATO has five Western members: the USA, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand; and three Asians: Pakistan, Philippine, and Thailand. It was very clear that Korea and Taiwan were not invited. But the interesting thing is that the governmental SEATO, after 23 years, was dissolved in 1977; but the peoples’ APLFD still lives on after 60 years.
The Years of mid 1950s to 1970s The foundation of the APLFD has been laid at the Chinhae Conference yet its road ahead was uncertain and rough. Just like from a twig to a tree, it took years before the League could stand tall as an established group.
The beginning of the League was not so smooth as it was expected. At the Chinhae Conference there was an resolution that the Second Conference of the League should be held in Taipei within four months after the Chinhae Conference. According to the Korean’s plan, the Second Conference should be held before the end of the year of 1954. But it seemed that the host in Taipei saw it in another way. So the dates of the Second Conference was postponed first to February, then to April, and finally set on May 23 to 30, 1955 so announced by the Taipei host, the APACL China Chapter, or the ROC Chapter.
While the people in Taiwan (or Free China) were exciting with high expectations for their first world gathering event, the Korea Chapter, on May 16, 1955,just a week before the Taipei Conference opened, announced that the Koreans will miss the Taipei Conference. For a last trial,Taipei sent a special envoy to Seoul, trying to talk the Koreans to come, but failed.
The disagreement between Seoul and Taipei was brought by the issue of the Japanese participation. Taipei, being the host, would like to invite their Japanese friend to the Taipei Conference as an observer first, then as a full member at later League conference.
The Koreans, being one time the victim of the Japanese occupation (1910-1945) recalled the Japanese cruelty and strongly against the idea of inviting Japan to join the family. On the other hand, it seemed the ROC on Taiwan has a more open mind, even one of the factors that caused them to retire to Taiwan was the Japanese invasion on China while Taiwan was under Japanese occupation (1895-1945).This Sino-Japanese War of 14 years (1931-1945), all battled on the Chinese soil, has caused million of millions broken Chinese families, ruined the treasures and arms of the ruling KMT (the Nationalist Party), but saving the Chinese Communist Party from the edge of collapse and secured its campaign for a later day victory in the Civil War in 1949.
As the Koreans were not coming, the League’s Second Conference was cancelled at the last minute. But since invitations could not be withdrawn at such short notice, so the Taipei Host decided to keep their original schedule but re-arranged the event to a certain anti-communist seminars attended by some 26 delegates from Japan, Burma, Ryukyu, Turkey, Pakistan, Free Russia and Free China (Taiwan). So the year of 1955 ended without a League conference as originally planned.
The League’s Second Conference was at last held in Manila in March 1956. Five years later, in 1960, Japan was admitted as a Member at the Sixth Conference hosted by Taipei, which was the first League Conference hosted by the ROC Chapter after the League’s founding six years earlier.
In fact, in those early years, the Korea Chapter and the ROC(Taiwan) Chapter both has played their significant leading role in the development of the League. This was due to the fact that they has a strong support from their national leader, President Park Chung Hee of Korea, and President Chiang Kai-shek of the ROC. Both of them believed that the support for the APACL movement met their national interest.
Take the Korea Chapter as a case. When General Park Chung Hee stepped in as the new President of Korea in 1962, an APACL Extraordinary Conference, at the request of the Korea Chapter, was convened in Seoul in May, 1962. The conference was presided over by Mr. Choi Kyu Hah, the Korea Chapter Chairman, who was a trusted hand of President Park, and later became the Prime Minister and a short-lived President in late 1979.
At the 1962 Seoul meeting a resolution was adopted, calling for the establishment of a Korea Freedom Center for the training, study and propaganda against the Communist. Based on this resolution, the Korea Chapter eventually obtained an 50-acre leased land from President Park’s government which also provided half amount of the funding needed for the constructions of such Center. The Freedom Center, a land mark of Seoul in the 1960s, was opened in late 1964. The building, when built, has 74 rooms for office and functions, and an open ground for exhibitions and rally. Adjoined to the campus was a 17-story Freedom House (the Tower Hotel, now the Banyan Tree Club) for the accommodations of guests.
After its completion, the Freedom Center became the headquarters of the Korea Chapter (Korea Freedom Federation). On this solid base, Korea Chapter took up the leading role in the League movement during the 1960s and 1970s, till came the tragic death of President Park Chung Hee, one night in October, 1979, which not only changed the national course of Korea, but also leading to a gradual retirement of Korea from active APLFD function. During the reign of President Park Chung Hee, Korea has hosted four League conferences, but none after 1976, until the 2010 Incheon Conference when the Koreans were remembering their 60th anniversary of the Korean War.
It seemed the 1960s was a good time for the development of the League. In 1960s, the Chinese Red Guards were undergoing their unreasoning Culture Revolution, destroying their country in their own way. At the same time, the Vietnam War on the Indochine caught the attention of the free world on the growing threat of the Communist. And finally, before 1960s faded away, a split was seen when the two big Communist brothers, China and the USSR,crashed with each other in battle on the Zhenbao Island (Damanski Island) on the Ussuri River along their border. But, all that turned out to be false blessings.
In the meantime, as the sound of battle was approaching and the fighting was escalating, South Vietnam turned to be an active member of the League in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 17 years between 1957 to 1974, South Vietnam has hosted four League conferences, trying to seek international sympathy for their survival against the invasion from North.
Of the Saigon conferences, the 1963 Conference was proceeded under the sound of guns, and closed with a military coup that ousted President Ngo Dinh Diem of the South, as the Taipei delegation was departing Saigon for home after the League conference. Another Saigon Conference was organized in late December,1968, the year that turned the tide of the War in the favour of the North after the Tet Offensives, a surprise attack on the New Year eve by the Viet Cong, the Communist.
The last Saigon Conference was held in late November,1974, opened by President Nguyen Van Thieu who urged the free world to unite against the Communist. But five months later, that same President Nguyen gave up his post and left his country on April 21, 1975, just nine days before the Viet Cong moved into Saigon and ended the Vietnam War that killed 47,393 American soldiers and wounded another 164,163.
The end of the Vietnam War also ended Saigon’s connection with the League. However, free Vietnamese continued their participation in the League after 1975, and supported the League movement in their own way with their own resources.
Taiwan, who preferred to be called Free China during the 1950s and 1960s, also played a major role in the League development of 1960s and 1970s, but, in a comparative term, not so enthusiastic as the Koreans or the Vietnamese since they were occupied with another similar organization, named the World Anti-Communist League (WACL) which was founded in 1967, upon the support of the APACL.
The 1970s was a decade of testing time for Taipei. The split between Moscow and Beijing, and the frustration brought by the Vietnam War, made the American adopted a new China policy. Thus, in the beginning of 1970s, the famous Henry Kissinger, as a National Security Advisor of President Nixon of the USA, had an ice-breaking trip to Beijing in July 1971, leading to the withdraw of the ROC(Republic of China) from the United Nations (UN) when the PRC (People’s Republic of China) took over the seat of China in the U.N. on October 25, 1971, under no objection from the U.S.A, whose President, Mr. Richard Nixon, followed up with an official visit to Beijing in February 1972, which eventually paved the way to a formal tie between Washington and Beijing on January 1, 1979, on which date, the USA cut off its official ties with the ROC on Taiwan.
The gone of Free China on the international stage, led the ROC Chapter played an increasing leading role in the League affairs since 1970s. However, instead of focusing wholly on anti-communist propaganda, the League was gradually switching its course to a friendship building for international understandings. So, that ends the 1970s for the League.
The Years of 1980s to 2010s
The coming of the 1980s saw the change of direction of the League in its development as it expanded its scope from Asia to the Pacific. In order to win the island people, the League replaced the “Peoples” with the “Pacific” and changed its name to the Asian Pacific Anti-Communist League which was adopted at the 1984 Conference in Hawaii, Honolulu.
Such change, among other factors, was brought by : (1) The pass away of strong anti-communist national leaders in the ROC, President Chiang Kai-shek (1975) and in Korea, President Park Chung Hee (1979). Their decease has soften the League’s propaganda against the Communist. (2) The growth of Korea from a shaky country ( in the 1950s) to a recognized nation as seen in the 1988 Korean Olympic Game, causing the change of Korea’s priority in its national policy, of which, anti communist was no more the first. (3) After a series of set back in the international community, Taiwan became an active leader in the League. (4)The League’s Secretariat was removed to Taipei from Saigon in 1976, bringing in new leadership and new policy.
The League initiated its Pacific work in late 1970s, knocking on the door of Pacific islands by its first Pacific conference in Guam in early December, 1978, followed by a 1979 Conference in Honolulu, Hawaii. When 1980s began, the League focused its efforts on the Pacific and tried to be friends with every major island states. Of the ten League conferences in that decade, four were held in the Pacific. By 1990, APLFD Members from the Pacific included: American Samoa, Australia, Fiji, Guam, New Zealand, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Vanuatu, Palau, Tuvalu. Also, there were Papua New Guinea, Western Samoa and Nauru as observers.
The 1980s was the heyday of the APLFD. There were 28 active member chapters and 19 observer units at the high time. Besides those from the Pacific, the Members of 1980s were from every part of Asia, including: Turkey of Minor Asia,; and Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Bahrain, Iran, Lebanon, Oman of the Middle East; and India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka of South Asia; and Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Laos, Burma of Southeast Asia; and Korea, Japan and Taiwan of Northeast Asia. It was indeed one big family for Asia and Pacific.
But as the Chinese saying goes : “What Goes up, Must Come Down.” So, the glory days of 1980s were gradually dimmed away when 1990s came as the Twentieth Century was drawing to its end in another decade. To the world as a whole, the 1990s was a decade centered on political issues. Democracy and reformation of nations was the fashion of the day.
1990 came with the after effect of the massive Chinese student demonstration took place in May 1989 at the Tiananmen Square in Beijing, the capital of China. As expected, the student protest died down after the People’s Liberation Army moved into the Square on June 4 and ended the event known as Tiananmen Square Incident.
And in the West, the Communist East Germany, in a surprised move one day in early November 1989, dismantled the famous Berlin Wall that separated the free movement of the Germans both in the east and the west since 1961. The come down of the Wall not only freed the people of East Germany but also led to an unified Germany a year later in October 1990. At the same time, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR),or the Soviet Union, formed in 1922, was collapsed in 1991 after a series of power struggles among the Russian leaders. The dissolution of the Soviet Union resulted in the appearing of new European independent states of more than a dozen, all cried out for national reforms under the banner of Democracy or Nationalism as the world turning into the new millennium.
In the wake of this global Democratic Wave, the League changed its name, for the second time, to the Asian Pacific League for Freedom and Democracy (APLFD) that adopted at the 1990 Manila Conference. Under the new name, the League turned another new page of its development.
The 1990 Manila Conference marked the return of the Philippines to its once active role in the League during the 1960s. In fact, in the League development, the Philippines Chapter always played its part of a supportive and constructive role when in times of needed. It was the Philippines who took over the unfinished job to host the Second Conference when Taipei could not fulfill its responsibility. It was also the dedications of the Philippines Chapter that produced the League’s founding Charter of 1956, and the modern day APLFD Charter of 1991.
While the changing to a new name, from anti-communist to freedom and democracy, brought fresh air and expectations, but it is just as simple as the letter shows that “Democracy” and “Anti-Communist” are different kinds of two. It is not a surprise that the new name brought uncomfortable feelings for some Members, such as those from the Middle East, who are disagreeable with American democracy.
The Middle East members, particularly Saudi Arabia, has played a key role during their association with the League. Saudi Arabia first joined the League in 1960 as an observer, and became a full member in 1971. In the following 20 years Saudi nearly never missed any League conference. Most of all, the Saudi Chapter was the major donor of the League conferences during 1970s to 1980s. Their financial support has helped to produce many successful conferences. The departure of Saudi Arabia and his brothers was a considerable lost to the League.
Meanwhile, in Taiwan, where housed the ROC Chapter which is the major actor of the League, President Chiang Ching-kuo, son of the other President Chiang, lifted the martial law in 1987 and announced a series of open up measures that included people’s freedom to travel to Communist China, as well as the citizen’s right to organize political party for political causes. That began the democratization of Taiwan that led to a diversified politics centered on home issues and political power. Such new political picture, in some way, hampered the APLFD development since the 1990s.
The 1990s was a quiet decade for the APLFD development. Nothing extraordinary. During that decade, Australia, New Zealand and the Philippines were the focal point of the League affairs. Seven of the ten conferences of the League in the 1990s were held in rotating in these three countries. At the same time, the average number of active chapters at the League conferences was down to 19 from 25 of the 1980s, as the League was facing a limited funding.
Came the new millennium, a revival was seen between 2001 to 2008 when the APLFD turned to a new course in expanding its work to the Pacific Rim on the other side of the shore. The West Coast of North America became the main activity ground of the League.
The League held its first ever American conference when the 2002 Conference was convened in Vancouver of Canada, followed by a 2004 Conference in California, USA, as well as a 2007 Conference in Portland of Oregon, USA. Both Canada and the USA became a Member of the APLFD in 2002 and 2004 respectively. At the same time, under the auspices of the APLFD Secretariat, a forum named Asia Pacific Round Table was formed in 2003. Through the round table meetings, the League further promoted its activity to the other part of the world, such as to Johannesburg of South Africa in 2005 and Brussels of Belgium in 2007.
But as it is so said : “Good Times Never Lasted Long”. So, once again, the development of the APLFD was slow down after 2009. The limitation of funding forced the League to divert its work mainly to the organization of Asia Pacific Round Table meeting which is more affordable. In the years of 2010 to 2013, such round table meetings were held in Southeast Asia cities of Kuala Lumpur, Phnom Penh, Bandar Seri Begawan and Bangkok.
The APLFD Secretariat
The Secretariat is the operation center of the League. It operates as a center of coordination, planning and execution. It links all the Members together. It plays its role in behind the scene to produce the good show in the front. It is the heart of the League.
In the beginning when the League was first founded, the Korea Chapter has drafted an idea of establishing a permanent Central Coordination Center in Seoul, but such idea, for reasons unknown, did not materialized. And three years after the League was founded, at the first Saigon Conference in 1957, it was resolved to establish a permanent Secretariat in Saigon, South Vietnam. Mr. Nguyen Hwm Thong, a Vietnamese, was elected as the first Secretary General of the League.
Seven years later, as Saigon was in a political unrest under those come-and-go military authorities while the Vietnam War was escalating, so the Taipei Conference of 1964 resolved to move the Secretariat to Manila for reason of safety. The Vietnam delegation strongly against such idea, but accepted it after the ROC Chapter promised to set up and finance a relief unit in Saigon for charity aids.
The Secretariat moved to Manila in September 1965, with Dr. Jose Hernandez of the Philippines as the new Secretary General. Dr. Jose Hernandez was the Director of the English Department of the University of Santo Thomas, the most leading university in the Philippines. He was also the First Vice President of the Philippines Anti-Communist Movement Inc. In 1967, Dr. Hernandez resigned. And that ended Manila as the headquarter of the League’s Secretariat after a short period of three years..
So, at the Taipei Conference of 1967, once again, the members decided to have the Secretariat returned to Saigon for the second time. The Vietnam delegation accepted this resolution with appreciation and joy, while Colonel Do Dang Cong was elected as the new Secretary General. The return of the Saigon Secretariat last for another seven years.
In April 1975, Saigon was taken by the Communist. In the chaos, gone was the Saigon Secretariat. But Colonel Do Dang Cong escaped the tragedy and became a free Vietnamese. He continued to represent Vietnam at the League for the next 12 years, till his last conference of 1987.
In the 1975 Tokyo Conference, the relocation of the Secretariat was the main issue. Japan, for political reason, turned down the offer to have Tokyo as the new site of the League Secretariat. Finally, as all wished, Taipei became the new home of the Secretariat, and Dr. Han Lih-wu, a former ROC Minister of Education, was elected as the new Secretary General. The removal of the Secretariat to Taipei and the leading role of Dr. Han had a profound influence on the development of the League after mid 1970s.
The Taipei Secretariat was opened in March, 1976. Unlike his predecessors, Dr. Han was a high ranking official in the government before his new assignment with the League. He has a strong academic and diplomatic background, and was the ROC Ambassador to Thailand, Laos, the Philippines and Greece. With Dr. Han’s connections and reputation in the Taipei political circle, the Secretariat was able to have a full support from the authority. During his 16 years service with the League, Dr. Han, with his vision and determination, expanded the League’s scope to the Pacific, and gave the League its present name. He deceased in March 1991.
Dr. Han was succeeded by Ambassador Pao-tai Tien, a former ROC Ambassador to Saudi Arabia. Amb. Tien is a gentleman with a considerate mind. During his time, from 1991 to 2000, the Secretariat has reactivated chapters in Hong Kong, Macau and Singapore; and strengthen the role of Australia and New Zealand. But in terms of the League’s financial situation, it was a hard time. Funding for the Secretariat was cut year after years since 1993. It seemed all would be drained by the end of 1999.
But the APLFD Secretariat was not forsaken. The angel came with the beginning of the new days when Dr. Ming-min Peng was elected as the APLFD Secretary General at the 2000 Conference in Bali, Indonesia, after Amb. Tien tendered his resignation for health reason. Dr. Peng, a known scholar for his contribution and dedication to the democratic movement of Taiwan, kept the Secretariat rolling for another eight years, till 2008.
During Dr. Peng’s time, the development of the League was further promoted to North America to Canada and the USA. Dr. Peng also formed a forum named Asia Pacific Round Table in 2003 to further promote the League’s activity to Europe, Africa, and Northeast Asia. After eight years with the League, Dr. Peng, for personal reason, resigned in April 2008. Mr. Tu Yuan-fang, a former ROC Ambassador to Finland, was the acting Secretary General of the Secretariat for a short while before Mr. Liou Jieh Jow, a former ROC National Assemblyman, was elected as the new Secretary General at the 2008 Conference in Guam. He was reelected for a second term for the year of 2012 to 2015.
During the years between 2008 to 2014, the Secretariat has promoted its connections in Palau, Guam, Malaysia, Cambodia and Laos. But at the same time, the old issue of financial difficulties reappeared once again, bringing up one question of the survival of the Secretariat in Taipei.
Into the year of 2014, 60 years after its founding, the APLFD has active member Chapters of 15, namely: Australia, Fiji, Guam, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Palau, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, ROC (Taiwan) and Vietnam. The numbers may be not big. But they are the real one that keep the APLFD still alive and active.
Yet, one can not deny that the development of the APLFD, at this stage, is at a bottle neck. The main cause of such is the shortage of its funding, so told by the saying that “ Money is the Root of Everything”.
In 1950s to 1990s, the League’s activities were supported by four major donators: the ROC (Taiwan), Saudi Arabia, South Korea and Japan. But as time went by, due to political reasons, those contributions were shorten bit by bit, till a complete end. Saudi Arabia was the first to cease its donation in 1991; then Japan followed in 1996; and Taiwan, the ROC Chapter, cut off all its donation since 1997. South Korea is the only member who kept his honor and principle to fund the League, until 2001. The lacking of these financial sources has blocked the League from a normal function.
Nevertheless, if we look the other way, we might recall there is also another saying that “It is the Man who Made Things Happen”. It is true that it was the passion of those supportive Members that guided the APLFD overcame the rough sea in the dark hours during those long years. Indeed, it was those true friends, of old and new, from Brunei, Cambodia, Guam, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Zealand, Palau, Singapore, Vietnam, who made possible of a meaningful and successful APLFD gathering in recent years since 2010. Theses decent people are the backbone of the League.
No doubt, the APLFD was a political organization if one looks to its founding background. But such nature is changing as the world changes. In recent years, the APLFD is slowly turning its course to a regional organization that works for Asian understandings. The APLFD is focusing more on economic and cultural issues than those political matters, and this will be the future direction of the APLFD. In retrospect, among others, may be the most impressive achievement of the APLFD was to create a forum for Asians and islanders to have their voices heard, bridging the gaps among Asians, and bringing people’s attention to the Asian affairs.
In times of the past, so many things have happened, yet so many things still remain unchanged. Those old days of good and bad were all gone now. The coming new days, sunshine or rain, are uncertain. What is the road ahead ? And how to face it ? All that takes a collective wisdom and efforts of the League members before the APLFD could go on, and on.
1.”South Korea Delegation to Visit Southeast Asia for Anti-Communist Conference”, Hong Kong Times, April 30, 1954, Hong Kong.
2.”Asian Anti-Communist Conference Opens”, Central Daily News, June 16,1954, Taipei.
3.”Chinhae Conference Declares War on Communism”, Central Daily News, June 19, 1954, Taipei.
4. Han, Lih-wu, “The Significance of the Chinhae Conference”, the Reminiscences of Mr. Han Lih-wu, Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica, Taipei, 1990.
5.”ROC Chapter Cancels the Second APACL Conference”, Central Daily News, May 2, 1955, Taipei.
6.Important Documents of the Asian Peoples’ Anti-Communist League Third Annual Conference, APACL Vietnam Chapter, Saigon, 1957.
7.Proceedings of the 21st APACL Conference, APACL Japan Chapter, Tokyo, 1975.
8.Proceedings of the 29th APACL General Conference, APACL Secretariat, Taipei, 1983.
9.Proceedings of the 30th APACL General Conference, APACL Secretariat, Taipei, 1984.
10.Proceedings of the 36th APLFD Conference, APLFD Secretariat, Taipei, 1990.
About the Author :
Mr. Alex Wang is the Executive Secretary of the APLFD Secretariat. He has associated with the APLFD for 35 years. He joined the APLFD Secretariat in 1979 as an assistant secretary and was later promoted to be a secretary, then the Chief of League Affairs, before he became the Executive Secretary in 2008. He organized every APLFD events since 1990. Through all these years, his interest and his work has made him a qualified observer on Asian affairs. Mr. Alex Wang is also the author of the book “A Review of Asian Issues” (1989, Taipei), and the co-editor of the book “Fiji : A Paradise in South Pacific” (1989, Taipei).